Archive for the Kim Jong Il Category

“An Antidote to Disinformation about North Korea” – Book Review; ‘North Korea: Another Country’, By Bruce Cumings, The New Press, 2004 [Globalresearch.ca]

Posted in Anti-communism, Bill Clinton, CIA, Corporate Media Critique, DPR Korea, George W. Bush, India, INS, Japan, Kim Jong Il, Korean War, Nukes, Saudi Arabia, south Korea, US foreign occupation, US Government Cover-up, US imperialism, USA, USA 21st Century Cold War, USSR, World War II on January 1, 2015 by Zuo Shou / 左手

by Al Olsen

28 December 2005

This Review was published nine years ago on GR.

Bruce Cumings, a history professor at the University of Chicago and a former Peace Corps volunteer in South Korea, has given us a badly needed antidote to the lies and disinformation about the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea) being spread by the media and the Bush administration. The author has observed “the deafening absence of any contrary argument” and cuts through this smokescreen of ignorance in his well-researched historical study of North Korea.

Cumings directs his book to “the reader who wishes to learn about our eternal Korean enemy.” He believes that North Korea is a nation that cannot be understood apart from its historical past, including the “terrible fratricidal war (Korean War) that has never ended”; the 1930s guerrilla struggle against the Japanese and North [sic] Korea’s eventual emergence as a state in 1945; its relations with the South; its reaction to the end of the Cold War and collapse of the Soviet Union; and “its interminable daily struggle” with the United States.

The author…admits to empathy for the underdog, “which is something I can’t help.” Cumings charges the U.S. with a significant responsibility “for the garrison [sic] state that emerged on the ashes of our truly terrible destruction of the North a half a century ago.”

Yes, the “history” spoon fed to Americans completely omits the holocaust from the air carried out by U.S. bombers and fighter planes against North Korean cities during the Korean War.

American planes dropped tens of thousands of bombs and many hundreds of tons of napalm on cities in North Korea. Even Winston Churchill criticized the savagery of the American attack when he commented, “When napalm was invented in the latter stages of World War II, no one contemplated that it would be ‘splashed’ over a civilian population.” Three million North Koreans died during this conflict, and 18 out of its 22 largest cities were 50 percent to 100 percent obliterated.

Cumings notes that by 1952, most of the survivors living in central and North Korea lived in caves. North Korea continued to burrow underground, and today it has over 15,000 underground facilities, many made of hardened concrete to survive nuclear attacks and American bombs. These include factories, plane hangars, and many other kinds of installations. The author again emphasizes that North Korea is a garrison state “because of the holocaust the North experienced during the Korean War.”

The 50th anniversary of the armistice ending the Korean War came and went on July 27, 2003, and 40,000 American troops remain in South Korea, where they have been since occupying the country in September 1945.

Cumings bitterly criticizes U.S. policy towards North Korea. On human rights issues, he points out how the U.S. has been fast to criticize the Communists “while ignoring the reprehensible behavior of our allies, that is, U. S. support for dictators who make Kim Jung Il look enlightened (the Saudis, for example).”

In addition, Cumings blames American confusion on an “irresponsible media” which lacks good investigative reporters, and is often “egged on by government officials.” He also blames South Korean security forces who “have succeeded for decades in getting Americans to stare blankly at one side of the Korean civil conflict, like a pigeon with nystagmus such that its head turns only to the left.”

The author stridently criticizes and blames the Bush administration for the ongoing crisis with North Korea. He accuses Bush of walking away from groundwork laid by Clinton [sic] for the resolution of the crisis. Cumings compares the foreign policy of the Bush administration to “amateur night at a halfway house,” and fears a real danger from “a mix of situations in which Bush’s preemptive strike doctrine could trigger war.”

He also castigates the radical right for their predictions of North Korea’s imminent collapse; they are “wrong-wrong-wrong,” he says, and cites a 1999 speech by CNN International President Joe Eason, a frequent visitor to the North, who stated “these guys (North Koreans) will tough it out for centuries, just the way they are.”

Part of the book is devoted to North Korean society and its development under socialism. Modern Korea had emerged from a class-divided, highly stratified society in which a long-standing system of chattel slavery had only been abolished in 1894.

North Korea experienced what Cumings terms a “smooth” transition to socialism following World War II. He partially attributes the transitional change to a long-time Korean tradition of “sharing and mutual aid of all kinds.”

Agricultural land was collectivized while farmers were able to keep their own homes and small garden plots. He credits the gardens as greatly helping farmers during the famine of the 1990s. North Korean farmland was worked communally, and farmers received a share of the harvest based on the number of hours of work they had done.

Formally low- and middle-class families now occupied favored social positions, and formally wealthy families who remained in the North could work and earn their way back up the social ladder. Only the very bottom rung was permanently reserved for Japanese collaborators.

Cumings pays careful attention to the weather and crop disasters of the 1990s. North Korea experienced record-breaking floods (1995 and 1996) followed by an equally severe drought and famine (1997). The author believes that the food shortage problem “has provided little evidence of a collapse of state power, except for breakdowns at the local level.” And Cumings adds, even at its worst, “the famine only began to approach India’s year-in, year-out toll (in proportionate terms) of infant mortality and deaths from malnutrition or starvation which I only mention because the media’s recent habit of depicting Kim Jung Il’s frolicking among a heap of starved cadavers.”

Finally, Cumings describes a declassified CIA report on North Korea, and a part of that report which describes the achievements of that society. The report says “North Korea provides compassionate care for war orphans in particular and children in general; ‘radical change’ in the position of women (there are more college-educated women than college-educated men); genuinely free-housing; preventive medicine on a national scale accomplished to a comparatively high standard; infant mortality and life expectancy rates comparable to the most advanced countries until the recent famine; ‘no organized prostitution’ and ‘the police are difficult if not impossible to bribe.’”

Cumings book provides a valuable service with its informative and truthful portrayal of North Korea. This book is valuable for combating the inevitable lies of the Bush administration in its imperial quest for global domination. North Korea faces the very real danger of war and more suffering at the hands of a bellicose Bush administration — a very good reason for this work to be widely read and passed on to other interested persons.

Edited by Zuo Shou

Article link: http://www.globalresearch.ca/an-antidote-to-disinformation-about-north-korea/1663

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“Longing in February“ – Missing General Kim Jong Il on “Day of Shining Star”, his Feb 16 birthday [Naenara]

Posted in DPR Korea, Kim Jong Il, Photos on February 20, 2014 by Zuo Shou / 左手

February 16 is the Day of the Shining Star, birth anniversary of General Kim Jong Il. In February every year with this significant day the Korean people more ardently long for him and their hearts throb, thinking of him all the time in the morning and in the evening. Kim Jong Il dedicated all his life to the people.

Thinking only of the people, he crossed all steep passes in the country to call on them. He always found himself on the road of field guidance all the year round, even on red-letter days and holidays. With parental affection for children, he thought of the food problem of the people at farms and asked about the living conditions of the workers before others at factories, and uncovered the cooking pot and acquainted himself in detail with the living conditions of the people when he visited their houses. He was a kindhearted father looking after the people across the country…

The whole army and people of Korea ceaselessly visit his bronze statues with earnest longing for and eternal loyalty to him who dedicated himself only to the people all his life.

February in Korea is not a flowering season. But the Korean people´s boundless longing for Kim Jong Il grows beautiful flowers out of season. The unchangeable loyalty of the Korean army and people who hold Kim Jong Il in high respect as their eternal father is the nutriment blooming Kimjongilia, the red flower of the sun, across the country.

Kimjongilias are growing at homes and workplaces and not only grown-ups but also children raise the flowers with longing. It is a unanimous wish of the Korean people to have him amid the scent of flowers forever.

Such ardent wish of the people unfolds a sea of beautiful flowers at the venue of the Kimjongilia Festival held every year drawing many visitors. Art performance [sic], photo exhibition and other colorful celebrations held on the occasion of the February holiday also inspire the people with earnest longing for him…

Excerpted; full article with photos: http://www.naenara.com.kp/en/news/news_view.php?0+71679

National Meeting Marks 60th Anniversary of Victory in Fatherland Liberation War [KCNA]

Posted in China, CPC, CPC Central Committee (CPCCC), DPR Korea, Juche Idea, Kim Il Sung, Kim Jong Il, Kim Jong Un, Korean Central News Agency of DPRK, Korean War, Pyongyang, Sino-Korean Friendship, Songun policy, south Korea, US imperialism, USA, Workers Party of Korea WPK on July 28, 2013 by Zuo Shou / 左手

Pyongyang, July 26 (KCNA) — A grand national meeting was held at May Day Stadium Friday to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the victory in the great Fatherland Liberation War.
Kim Jong Un, first secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea, first chairman of the DPRK National Defence Commission and supreme commander of the Korean People’s Army, appeared at the tribune of honor of the meeting place.
Taking the tribune of honor were senior officials of the party, the state and the army including Kim Yong Nam, Pak Pong Ju and Choe Ryong Hae, Kim Yong Dae, chairman of the Central Committee of the Korean Social Democratic Party, and officials of the party and armed forces organs.
Seen there were Li Yuanchao, member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and vice-president of the People’s Republic of China, Abdullah al-Ahmar, deputy general secretary of the Syria’s Baath Arab Socialist Party, Guy Scott, vice-president of the Republic of Zambia, Edward Kiwanuka Ssekand, vice-president of the Republic of Uganda, and heads of foreign delegations.
Also seen there were Hong In Hum, chairman of the Central Audit Committee of the General Association of Korean Residents in Japan, Choe Un Bok, chairperson of the General Association of Koreans in China, and Kim Kang Hui, head of the lecturers group of veterans of the Chinese People’s Volunteers.
Present at the meeting were delegates of war veterans, officials of the party, armed forces and power organs, social organizations, ministries and national institutions, bereaved families of fallen fighters, service personnel of the KPA and the Korean People’s Internal Security Forces, officials in the fields of science, education, art and literature, public health and media, merited persons, Pyongyangites, delegations of overseas compatriots, compatriots abroad and chief of the Pyongyang mission of the Anti-Imperialist National Democratic Front.
Present on invitation there were diplomatic envoys of various countries, representatives of international organizations and members of the military attaches corps here, delegations and delegates of various countries staying here to participate in events to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the victory in the war and other foreign guests.
KPA Vice Marshal Choe Ryong Hae, member of the Presidium of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the WPK and director of the General Political Bureau of the KPA, declared the meeting open.
Kim Yong Nam, member of the Presidium of the Political Bureau of the C.C., the WPK and president of the Presidium of the DPRK Supreme People’s Assembly, made a report at the meeting.
He said:
The U.S. imperialists ignited the Korean war on June 25, 1950 to realize their wild ambition to dominate Asia and the rest of the world with the Korean Peninsula as its springboard. They hurled into the war even troops of its satellite countries by abusing the UN flag, and applied all sorts of the most brutal war methods and means including the threat of A-bombs.
The army and people of the DPRK defeated the invaders of 16 countries including the U.S. and the south Korean puppet forces in the war.
The historic victory in the war was the victory of the Juche-oriented military idea and outstanding strategy and tactics of President Kim Il Sung and one of the indomitable mental power of the army and people of the DPRK as they heroically fought, united close around the party and the leader.
The U.S. imperialists sustained a heavy defeat for the first time in their more than 100-year-long history of wars of aggression in the three-year-long Korean war and signed an instrument of surrender.
The DPRK, which beat back U.S. imperialism, was widely known as a country of heroes and its army and people earned worldwide fame as a heroic army and people.
During the war the party and government of China sent volunteers organized by its fine sons and daughters under the banner of resisting America and aiding Korea, safeguarding the home and defending the motherland even under the difficult situation where they just won victory in the people’s revolution. They helped the Korean people in their just struggle at the cost of blood.
The internationalist example set by the Chinese People’s Volunteers in the war recorded a shining page in the history of the DPRK-China friendship and the Korean party and people will always remember this.
The army and people of the DPRK greeted a new era of history in which they are successfully carrying forward the history and tradition of sure victory which started in Mt. Paektu and reliably steering the human cause of independence, thanks to Kim Jong Un, the reporter noted, and went on:
We should hold the great Generalissimos Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il in high esteem as the eternal leaders of our party and people and the sun of Juche for all ages and firmly uphold and eternally glorify the undying feats Kim Il Sung performed by winning a victory in the war and the Songun revolutionary feats of Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il.
The army and people of the DPRK will continue dynamically advancing for peace and stability in the Korean Peninsula, Northeast Asia and the rest of the world together with the progressive people who aspire after justice and value conscience.
Only July 27 of victory will be in store for the DPRK as the undying feats Kim Il Sung performed by winning the victory in the war and the Songun revolutionary exploits of Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il are shedding their rays and there are the invincible Paektusan army and the great unity of the army and people wisely led by Marshal Kim Jong Un.
Similar meetings took place in provinces, cities (districts), counties and industrial complexes to mark the anniversary. -0-

“May Day Marked in DPRK” & “National Meeting Marks May Day”- 2013 [KCNA]

Posted in DPR Korea, Holidays, Kim Il Sung, Kim Jong Il, Kim Jong Un, Korean Central News Agency of DPRK, Pyongyang, Songun policy, Workers Party of Korea WPK on May 1, 2013 by Zuo Shou / 左手

“MAY DAY MARKED IN DPRK

Pyongyang, May 1 (KCNA) — The May Day was significantly marked in the DPRK on Wednesday.
Parks, pleasure grounds, industrial establishments and cooperative farms were in a festive mood with colorful art performances and sports and amusement games.
Artistes of the Phibada Art Troupe gave a performance at the plaza of the Arch of Triumph and the National Folk Art Troupe at the Taesongsan Pleasure Ground. Put on the stages were mixed quartet “Our Leader Loved by People” and male duet “Peace Is Guaranteed by Our Arms”. The performers sang high praises of the undying feats of the great Generalissimos Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il.
Acrobats of the National Circus put on the stage acrobatics at the Mangyongdae Amusement Park. Builders of the capital city spent the holiday, playing sports games at Kim Il Sung Stadium.
The workers of the Huichon Power Station, the Pyongyang and Pukchang thermal power complexes, those of the Kangson Steel Complex, Songjin Steel Complex, the Kim Chaek Iron and Steel Complex and the Hwanghae Iron and Steel Complex, coal miners in Anju and other working people in the fields of light industry and agriculture across the country added to the atmosphere of the holiday with sports and amusement games.
Intellectuals of the State Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Agricultural Science, the Academy of Medical Science and other scientific research field across the country significantly marked the May Day. -0-

NATIONAL MEETING MARKS MAY DAY

Pyongyang, May 1 (KCNA) — A national meeting was held at the Hwanghae Iron and Steel Complex Wednesday, the 123rd May Day.
Present there were Pak Pong Ju, Kim Ki Nam and Yang Hyong Sop, and officials of the local party and economic organs, labor innovators and other people.
Premier Pak Pong Ju, member of the Political Bureau of the C.C., the Workers’ Party of Korea, made a report at the meeting.
He said that May Day is a significant holiday for fully demonstrating the revolutionary spirit and militant power of the working people of Songun Korea who are making devoted efforts for the prosperity of the country, united around the Workers’ Party of Korea in one mind, adding that it also serve as a holiday for strengthening international solidarity with working people the world over who are struggling to break iron chains of capital and attain democratic freedom and right and lead an independent life.
The working people of the DPRK are extending militant greetings and firm solidarity to the working people the world over struggling for a just and peaceful new world under the banner of independence against imperialism on May Day, he noted, and went on:
President Kim Il Sung and leader Kim Jong Il wisely led the Korean people to successfully discharge their noble historic mission and duty in the struggle for realizing the revolutionary cause of Juche, the socialist cause.
The dear respected Marshal Kim Jong Un is trusting and putting forward the workers and other people as revolutionary comrades and comrades-in-arms and energetically leading them to dynamically advance toward the final victory.
The workers and other people of the DPRK have devotedly worked for the country and revolution with hammers, sickles and writing brushes remaining true to the leadership of the party and the leader in the annals of the Korean revolution that was adorned with victory and glory.
There are many countries in the world and each country has many working people but there are no working people as those of Songun Korea who devote themselves to the patriotic cause with their creative labor efforts, displaying the independent dignity as human beings and leading a worthwhile and proud life under the care of the peerlessly great persons.
The reporter underscored the need to defend the dignity and sovereignty of the nation and build the best country, the people’s paradise on this land, by carrying out the new strategic line on simultaneously pushing forward economic construction and the building of nuclear force in the spirit of the March, 2013 Plenary Meeting of the C.C., the Workers’ Party of Korea under the leadership of Marshal Kim Jong Un. -0-

KCNA webpage link: http://www.kcna.kp/kcna.user.article.retrieveNewsViewInfoList.kcmsf#this

KCNA Releases Report on Satellite Launch / DPRK Foreign Ministry Spokesman on Satellite Launch [Korean Central News Agency / KCNA]

Posted in DPR Korea, Kim Jong Il, Korean Central News Agency of DPRK, UNSC, Workers Party of Korea WPK on December 13, 2012 by Zuo Shou / 左手

Congratulations to the DPRK on the successful satellite launch. As for the so-called ‘international community’ having problems with this, no sensible person can swallow their blatant double standards… Long live DPR Korea! — Zuo Shou

KCNA Releases Report on Satellite Launch

Pyongyang, December 12 (KCNA) — The Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) released the following report Wednesday:

Scientists and technicians of the DPRK successfully launched the second version of satellite Kwangmyongsong-3 into its orbit by carrier rocket Unha-3, true to the last instructions of leader Kim Jong Il.

Carrier rocket Unha-3 with the second version of satellite Kwangmyongsong-3 atop blasted off from the Sohae Space Center in Cholsan County, North Phyongan Province at 09:49:46 on December 12, Juche 101(2012). The satellite entered its preset orbit at 09:59:13, 9 minutes and 27 seconds after the lift-off.

The satellite is going round the polar orbit at 499.7 km perigee altitude and 584.18 km apogee altitude at the angle of inclination of 97.4 degrees. Its cycle is 95 minutes and 29 seconds.

The scientific and technological satellite is fitted with survey and communications devices essential for the observation of the earth.

The successful launch of the satellite is a proud fruition of the Workers’ Party of Korea’s policy of attaching importance to the science and technology. It is also an event of great turn in developing the country’s science, technology and economy by fully exercising the independent right to use space for peaceful purposes.

At a time when great yearnings and reverence for Kim Jong Il pervade the whole country, its scientists and technicians brilliantly carried out his behests to launch a scientific and technological satellite in 2012, the year marking the 100th birth anniversary of President Kim Il Sung. -0-

***

DPRK Foreign Ministry Spokesman on Satellite Launch

Pyongyang, December 12 (KCNA) — A spokesman for the Foreign Ministry of the DPRK gave the following answer to questions put by KCNA Wednesday as regards the successful launch of the second version of satellite Kwangmyongsong-3:

The successful satellite launch in the DPRK was a desire at the behest of leader Kim Jong Il and part of peaceful work in line with the country’s scientific and technological development plan for the economic construction and improvement of people’s living standard.

All the people across the country are greatly excited at the news of the successful launch and progressives are extending sincere congratulations to them.

Hostile forces, however, are showing signs of sinister bid to take issue with the launch for peaceful purposes, while terming it “violation of resolution” of the UN Security Council.

The right to use outer space for peaceful purposes is universally recognized by international law and it reflects the unanimous will of the international community. So this issue is not one over which the UNSC can say this or that.

Only the DPRK’s satellite launch is regarded as long-range missile launch for military purposes, “provocation” and cause of increasing tension. This is prompted by the hostility toward the DPRK.

The U.S. over-reacted to the DPRK’s satellite launch in April out of hostile feelings which compelled the DPRK to reexamine the nuclear issue as a whole.

The concept of hostility will not be of any help, and confrontation will not help settle anything, either.

We hope that all countries concerned will use reason and remain cool so as to prevent the situation from developing to undesirable direction.

No matter what others say, we will continue to exercise our legitimate right to launch satellites and thus actively contribute to the economic construction and improvement of the standard of people’s living while conquering space. -0-

Korean Central New Agency English homepage: http://www.kcna.kp/goHome.do?lang=eng

KCNA Commentary Rebukes False Rumors about DPRK Leadership [Korean Central News Agency / KCNA]

Posted in Corporate Media Critique, DPR Korea, Kim Il Sung, Kim Jong Il, Kim Jong Un, Korean Central News Agency of DPRK, Lee Myung-bak, Media smear campaign, south Korea, Workers Party of Korea WPK on July 21, 2012 by Zuo Shou / 左手

Pyongyang, July 20 (KCNA) — The U.S., south Korea and other forces hostile toward the DPRK are spreading false rumors as regards the organizational matter dealt with at a meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Korea.

Taking the lead in the smear campaign are FOX News, CNN, VOA, the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times and other U.S. media and Chosun Ilbo, Dong-A Ilbo, Korean Broadcasting System and other south Korean conservative media.

They fed the public with misinformation that there is serious power scrambles within the leadership in the DPRK and it has shifted its line from the military-first policy to the party-first policy emphasizing party’s control over the army.

Who is dismissed and appointed in the DPRK is not a matter of concern of other countries.

The rumors put it that the illness was not the cause of dismissal,…

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Setback for U.S. war plans in Asia [Workers World]

Posted in China, DMZ, DPR Korea, Encirclement of China, Japan, Kim Jong Il, Kim Jong Un, Korean War, Lee Myung-bak, Nukes, south Korea, US foreign occupation, US imperialism, USA, USA 21st Century Cold War, USSR on July 20, 2012 by Zuo Shou / 左手
by on July 18, 2012 »

Mass pressure sinks Korea-Japan military pact

Ro Su-hui is tied up and cuffed by South Korean security officials on July 5.

Washington’s strategy to cement a military alliance of the U.S., Japan and south Korea came unglued on June 29 at the last minute as popular pressure forced the Seoul regime to back out of signing a military intelligence-sharing pact with Tokyo.

The Pentagon had relied on right-wing south Korean President Lee Myung-bak to deliver the southern half of Korea into an alliance aimed against the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in the north and its gigantic neighbor, the People’s Republic of China.

The U.S. imperialist ruling class fears China’s rapid economic development. At the core of China’s economy is a system of state ownership and planning set up after the 1949 socialist revolution, though China now allows a growing capitalist market. At the time of the revolution, China had very little modern industry; the vast majority of the people were peasants who barely survived from harvest to harvest. Some 600 million Chinese have been lifted out of poverty since 1981, according to the World Bank, and the Chinese economy is now the second largest in the world. Meanwhile poverty and instability are growing in the Western capitalist countries.

Under the Obama administration, a shift in military strategy has already begun to build more U.S. bases in Asia and move the major part of the U.S. fleet to the Pacific.

Last year, the U.S. conducted joint military maneuvers with Japan and south Korea off the coast of the DPRK and not far from the Chinese mainland.

What the imperialists had not reckoned with, however, was the powerful impact this would have on the Korean people in both south and north, who have suffered terribly from war and foreign domination.

In the north, after the untimely death of Kim Jong Il last December, the new government of Kim Jong Un proceeded to further strengthen the DPRK’s military defenses.

In the south, demonstrations against military collaboration with Japan and the U.S. have been growing ever more militant, despite constant scare-mongering by the Lee regime about the “communist threat” from the north.

Uproar over proposed pact with Japan

The prospect of a military pact with Japan led to an uproar even within the legislature itself, which was formally notified of the deal only one day before it was to be signed.

It was only after the top south Korean “national security” aide considered the architect of the plan, Kim Tae-hyo, was forced to resign on July 5 that the New York Times decided to let its readers know what was really going on in south Korea:

“Mr. Lee’s government had meant the agreement as a limited step toward increasing military ties with Japan, in line with Washington’s desire to bring the two Asian countries closer under a trilateral alliance that could cope more efficiently with North Korea’s growing nuclear and missile threats, as well as with China’s expanding military clout.

“It quickly became apparent, however, that the government had underestimated South Koreans’ misgivings about cooperating militarily with Japan. Mr. Lee’s political opponents quickly seized on that disquiet to begin an election-year offensive, accusing Mr. Lee of kowtowing to Washington and, with various civic groups, likening the conservative governing camp to the past Korean ‘traitors’ who secretly cooperated with Japan’s annexation of the Korean Peninsula in 1910.” (New York Times, July 5)

All Korea was subjected to brutal Japanese colonial rule from 1910 to 1945. An estimated 200,000 Korean women were forced into sexual slavery to “serve” Japanese troops during World War II. Hatred for the colonial oppressors runs very deep in Korea.

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