Archive for the Juche Idea Category

S Korean Unified Progressive Party (UPP) lawmaker Lee Seok-ki sentenced to 12 years in prison on insurrection charge [The Hankyoreh / 한겨레]

Posted in DPR Korea, INS, Juche Idea, south Korea, south Korean human rights hypocrisy on February 22, 2014 by Zuo Shou / 左手

Convicted on anonymous testimony??? Kangaroo court witch-hunt BS! Free Lee Seok-ki! – Zuo Shou

Feb 18, 2014

* Court accepts most evidence from politicized National Intelligence Service and its unnamed informer *

By Hong Yong-duk, south Gyeonggi correspondent

A court found Unified Progressive Party (UPP) lawmaker Lee Seok-ki guilty of plotting an insurrection to overthrow the government, sentencing him to 12 years in prison and banning him from running for office for 10 years. It has been 34 years since then-opposition leader Kim Dae-jung was convicted of the crime.

The court also convicted the other six defendants – including Kim Hong-yeol, chair of the Gyeonggi Province branch of the UPP – of most of the charges they were facing and sentenced them to 4-7 years in prison and banned them from running for office for 4-7 years.

On Feb. 17, Kim Jeong-woon, presiding judge of the 12th criminal division of the Suwon District Court, gave Lee a harsh sentence: 12 years in prison, and a 10-year ban on political activity. Lee had been charged with plotting an insurrection, inciting others to participate in the plot, and violating the National Security Law.

For the other defendants, prison sentences and bans on political activities were 7 years for Kim Hong-yeol, Lee Sang-ho, Cho Yang-won, and Kim Geun-rae, 6 years for Hong Sun-seok, and 4 years for Hong Dong-geun.

During sentencing on Monday, the court sided with the prosecutors in finding Lee and the other defendants guilty of most of the charges – including plotting an insurrection. “They committed the grave crime of [plotting] an armed insurrection in the middle of Seoul,” the judge said. The sentence came five months after the National Intelligence Service (NIS) took its investigation public with a raid on the houses and offices of ten individuals, including Lee, on Aug. 28, 2013.

The main question under debate in the case was whether there had actually been a conspiracy to carry out an insurrection. Throughout the trial, the prosecutors and the attorneys for the defense debated whether the objective of the 130 members of the so-called ‘revolutionary organization’ (RO) – who met twice in May 2013 in Gonjiam, Gyeonggi Province, and the Mapo district of Seoul – intended to subvert the constitution. The debate concerned whether the members were part of an organization that had the specific purpose of plotting an insurrection; whether the timing and method of this alleged insurrection were specifically defined; and whether the members had deliberated and agreed to this.

On Monday, the court came to the conclusion that the testimony and evidence of the [unnamed] informer satisfied all of the conditions for a conspiracy to overthrow the government…

…Throughout the trial, the question of whether the RO really existed was debated. On this point, the court ruled, “the 130 people [who attended the two meetings] were members of the RO organization, which had a command system that was grounded in juche ideology.” While the prosecutors referred to the RO as “an underground revolutionary organization that had accepted juche ideology,” the counsel for the defense countered that this was a fiction that the NIS had concocted from conjecture and the testimony of its [unnamed] informer…

…the court accepted the majority of the key evidence submitted by the prosecutors, including [disputed] recordings, the [similarly disputed] transcript of the recordings, and the testimony of the NIS’s [anonymous] informer. During the trial, questions had been raised about the admissibility of the transcript of the recording of the May meeting, which the NIS had submitted. There were 720 errors in the transcript, with “shrine at Jeoldu Mountain” being changed to “shrine of the decisive struggle”. The two phrases sound somewhat similar in Korean.

…The NIS investigation [allegedly] began with information provided by the [anonymous] informer.

Excerpted by Zuo Shou

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“Opening Up New Phase of Reconciliation, Unity, Reunification and Prosperity Called for” – Kaesong Industrial Zone to re-open [KCNA]

Posted in DPR Korea, Juche Idea, Korean Central News Agency of DPRK, south Korea, US foreign occupation, US imperialism, USA on August 18, 2013 by Zuo Shou / 左手

Pyongyang, August 15 (KCNA) — The 7th talks between the authorities of the north and the south for the normalization of the operation in the Kaesong Industrial Zone took place in the zone on Wednesday amid the big concern and expectation of all the Koreans.

An agreement for the normalization of the zone which was adopted at the talks on the occasion of the 68th anniversary of Korea’s liberation brought delight to all the Koreans strongly desirous of the improvement of the north-south relations.

The adoption of the agreement is a precious fruition by the unanimous desire and will of all the Koreans to save the zone, a precious treasure common to the nation, from the crisis of closure and make a fresh breakthrough toward the improvement of the relations between the two sides.

Articles of the agreement reflect the efforts and magnanimous stand of the DPRK and the outstanding resourcefulness and wisdom of the Korean nation to lessen the differences between the north and the south in their stands and views and reach the final goal of normalization of the zone for its development.

Clearly reflected in the agreement is the wound given to the minds of the Koreans including the sufferings and damage done to south Korean businessmen due to the issue of the zone, the broad understanding of the expectation and desires of Koreans at home and abroad for the peace and stability in the Korean Peninsula and the region as well as the strong will for the settlement of the issue.

The whole process of adopting the agreement gave precious experience and taught a lesson that there are no problems insoluble and no obstacles insurmountable in the relations between the north and the south when the desire and interests common to the nation are put above all and everything is subordinated to them.

The adoption of the agreement has great meaning and significance to the Korean nation greeting the 68th anniversary of the country’s liberation.

The tragedy of national division that followed the joy over the liberation of the country and decades of division imposed by outside force have added to the pain suffered by the Koreans, making it all the more intolerable. So much strong the Korean nation has become in their desire for reconciliation, reunification, peace and prosperity.

The adoption of the agreement at this time opened up a prospect for defusing though a bit elements of confrontation and distrust produced by history of division and saving the zone symbolic of national reconciliation, cooperation and reunification by the wisdom and efforts of the north and the south. Herein lies the significance of the agreement.

It is a sacred cause the Korean nation has to achieve by pooling its efforts to remove the tragedy of division imposed by the outsiders.

The bigger significance of the agreement lies in that it instilled into the minds of all the Koreans the conviction that the north and the south can certainly open up the new phase for reconciliation, cooperation, peace, reunification and prosperity when they set aside differences and solve issues one by one based on commonness out of understanding and broad magnanimity.

The adoption demonstrated the will and practical ability of the Koreans to creditably carry out their mission and role as the driving force for the peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula and make active contribution to peace and stable development of the world including the region.

As shown by the result of the talks, the Korean nation is responsible for settling the issues arising in the north-south relations.

The north and the south should take active measures to consolidate the achievements made at the talks and further expand and develop work for national reconciliation, unity, reunification and prosperity in the idea of “By our nation itself”.

The peaceful environment, a precondition for improving the north-south relations, can be provided only by the common efforts by the Korean nation responsible for it.

The north and the south should take a coordinated action against any act of inciting fratricidal confrontation and escalating tensions on the peninsula which go against the desire and wishes of the nation.

Steadfast is the stand and will of the government and people of the DPRK to defend the desire and interests of the nation.

We will in the future, too, discharge our mission and duty in the struggle for nation’s reconciliation, unity, reunification and prosperity. -0-

KCNA homepage, with link to English page:

National Meeting Marks 60th Anniversary of Victory in Fatherland Liberation War [KCNA]

Posted in China, CPC, CPC Central Committee (CPCCC), DPR Korea, Juche Idea, Kim Il Sung, Kim Jong Il, Kim Jong Un, Korean Central News Agency of DPRK, Korean War, Pyongyang, Sino-Korean Friendship, Songun policy, south Korea, US imperialism, USA, Workers Party of Korea WPK on July 28, 2013 by Zuo Shou / 左手

Pyongyang, July 26 (KCNA) — A grand national meeting was held at May Day Stadium Friday to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the victory in the great Fatherland Liberation War.
Kim Jong Un, first secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea, first chairman of the DPRK National Defence Commission and supreme commander of the Korean People’s Army, appeared at the tribune of honor of the meeting place.
Taking the tribune of honor were senior officials of the party, the state and the army including Kim Yong Nam, Pak Pong Ju and Choe Ryong Hae, Kim Yong Dae, chairman of the Central Committee of the Korean Social Democratic Party, and officials of the party and armed forces organs.
Seen there were Li Yuanchao, member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and vice-president of the People’s Republic of China, Abdullah al-Ahmar, deputy general secretary of the Syria’s Baath Arab Socialist Party, Guy Scott, vice-president of the Republic of Zambia, Edward Kiwanuka Ssekand, vice-president of the Republic of Uganda, and heads of foreign delegations.
Also seen there were Hong In Hum, chairman of the Central Audit Committee of the General Association of Korean Residents in Japan, Choe Un Bok, chairperson of the General Association of Koreans in China, and Kim Kang Hui, head of the lecturers group of veterans of the Chinese People’s Volunteers.
Present at the meeting were delegates of war veterans, officials of the party, armed forces and power organs, social organizations, ministries and national institutions, bereaved families of fallen fighters, service personnel of the KPA and the Korean People’s Internal Security Forces, officials in the fields of science, education, art and literature, public health and media, merited persons, Pyongyangites, delegations of overseas compatriots, compatriots abroad and chief of the Pyongyang mission of the Anti-Imperialist National Democratic Front.
Present on invitation there were diplomatic envoys of various countries, representatives of international organizations and members of the military attaches corps here, delegations and delegates of various countries staying here to participate in events to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the victory in the war and other foreign guests.
KPA Vice Marshal Choe Ryong Hae, member of the Presidium of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the WPK and director of the General Political Bureau of the KPA, declared the meeting open.
Kim Yong Nam, member of the Presidium of the Political Bureau of the C.C., the WPK and president of the Presidium of the DPRK Supreme People’s Assembly, made a report at the meeting.
He said:
The U.S. imperialists ignited the Korean war on June 25, 1950 to realize their wild ambition to dominate Asia and the rest of the world with the Korean Peninsula as its springboard. They hurled into the war even troops of its satellite countries by abusing the UN flag, and applied all sorts of the most brutal war methods and means including the threat of A-bombs.
The army and people of the DPRK defeated the invaders of 16 countries including the U.S. and the south Korean puppet forces in the war.
The historic victory in the war was the victory of the Juche-oriented military idea and outstanding strategy and tactics of President Kim Il Sung and one of the indomitable mental power of the army and people of the DPRK as they heroically fought, united close around the party and the leader.
The U.S. imperialists sustained a heavy defeat for the first time in their more than 100-year-long history of wars of aggression in the three-year-long Korean war and signed an instrument of surrender.
The DPRK, which beat back U.S. imperialism, was widely known as a country of heroes and its army and people earned worldwide fame as a heroic army and people.
During the war the party and government of China sent volunteers organized by its fine sons and daughters under the banner of resisting America and aiding Korea, safeguarding the home and defending the motherland even under the difficult situation where they just won victory in the people’s revolution. They helped the Korean people in their just struggle at the cost of blood.
The internationalist example set by the Chinese People’s Volunteers in the war recorded a shining page in the history of the DPRK-China friendship and the Korean party and people will always remember this.
The army and people of the DPRK greeted a new era of history in which they are successfully carrying forward the history and tradition of sure victory which started in Mt. Paektu and reliably steering the human cause of independence, thanks to Kim Jong Un, the reporter noted, and went on:
We should hold the great Generalissimos Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il in high esteem as the eternal leaders of our party and people and the sun of Juche for all ages and firmly uphold and eternally glorify the undying feats Kim Il Sung performed by winning a victory in the war and the Songun revolutionary feats of Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il.
The army and people of the DPRK will continue dynamically advancing for peace and stability in the Korean Peninsula, Northeast Asia and the rest of the world together with the progressive people who aspire after justice and value conscience.
Only July 27 of victory will be in store for the DPRK as the undying feats Kim Il Sung performed by winning the victory in the war and the Songun revolutionary exploits of Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il are shedding their rays and there are the invincible Paektusan army and the great unity of the army and people wisely led by Marshal Kim Jong Un.
Similar meetings took place in provinces, cities (districts), counties and industrial complexes to mark the anniversary. -0-

DPRK lists crimes of detained American Pae Jun Ho [Xinhua]

Posted in DPR Korea, Juche Idea, USA on May 18, 2013 by Zuo Shou / 左手

PYONGYANG, May 10 2013 (Xinhua) — The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) listed the crimes of detained American Pae Jun Ho late Thursday, accusing him of conducting hostile acts, the official news agency KCNA reported.

“The court sentenced him to 15 years of hard labor in consideration of candid confession of his crimes though they are liable to face death penalty or life imprisonment for an attempt at state subversion,” an unnamed Supreme Court spokesman said…

…According to the statement, Pae conducted “a malignant smear campaign” against the DPRK and incited DPRK citizens overseas and foreigners to perpetrate hostile acts.

Pae gave lectures to more than 1,500 people slandering the Juche idea of the Workers’ Party of Korea and the DPRK’s socialist system and instigated them to bring down the government, it said.

He infiltrated at least 250 students into the city of Rason under the guise of tourists and “was caught red-handed” bringing with him anti-DPRK literature on in November last year, it added.

Pae was arrested on Nov. 3 while “committing hostile acts against the DPRK” and has “admitted that he committed crimes aimed to topple the DPRK with hostility toward it and were proved by evidence.”

A Foreign Ministry spokesman said Sunday that Pyongyang has no intention to invite U.S. diplomats to Pyongyang over the issue.

The United States has called on the DPRK to immediately release Pae, who was sentenced to 15 years of compulsory labor earlier this month.

Pae, a Washington state resident, is at least the sixth American detained in the DPRK since 2009.

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S Korean “New Right” anti-DPRK subversives held in China for criminal violations of PRC’s national security [The Hankyoreh / 한겨레]

Posted in Dalian, DPR Korea, Juche Idea, Kim Il Sung, south Korea on May 19, 2012 by Zuo Shou / 左手

[Edited to remove The Hankyoreh’s bourgeois liberal nationalist bias, and considerable anonymously-attributed rumor-mongering. I can find no support to the story in Chinese media. – Zuo Shou]

May 16, 2012

By Kim Kyu-won, staff writer

…Kim Young-hwan and three colleagues were reportedly arrested on March 29 in Dalian, China by intelligence agencies on charges of violating the country‘s national security law. [They] are suspected of having sent defectors back into North Korea [sic] to promote democracy [sic]. Their detention has been made public through the testimonies of [unidentified] other[s]…

On May 15, a figure familiar with Kim and the other three men, said, “The defectors they sent into North Korea are said to have distributed leaflets and collected information. I know that the object of their activities was bringing down the North Korean [sic] regime…”

Reports suggest that the Chinese Ministry of State Security (MSS) targeted five individuals for arrest, but one of them evaded capture and is now on the run. The source, said, “He left his passport behind, so he’s unable to come back to Korea.” The source claimed that three of the five were former students…from North Jeolla province.

“…they are all influenced by Kim Young-hwan. I know that they followed Kim when he turned to the New Right movement…”

Some have raised suspicions about the relationship between the arrested individuals and South Korean intelligence services. They have been traveling to and from China for between five and ten years, supporting defectors, and are known to have run restaurants and internet cafes in order to fund the operations . Some suspect that the individuals received financial support from South Korean intelligence agencies . An official at the National Intelligence Service [issued a boilerplate denial]…

An official at South Korea‘s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MOFAT) stated with regard to the incident, “Of the four individuals, only Kim Young-hwan wanted consular access, so the [South Korean] consul general in Shenyang met him on April 26. We have requested telephone calls and meetings with the other three individuals, who signed documents waiving their rights to consular access, to confirm their exact intentions….

The four individuals are currently being held by the MSS as they await indictment. MOFAT reported that it was not yet certain whether they would be handed over to a court….The MOFAT official stated that individuals convicted of violating China’s national security law are subject to sentences of up to life imprisonment for ringleaders and up to ten years in jail for accomplices.

In the 1980s, Kim Young-hwan was a pro-North Korea [sic] activist. He is widely known as the writer of “Gangcheol Seosin,” a work that served as the textbook of the left-wing Jusapa faction of the 1980s. In the 1980s he was a scholar of North Korea‘s Juche ideology as part of the National Liberation movement. He visited North Korea and met premier Kim Il-sung in 1991.

After his visit to North Korea, Kim…turned against North Korea…

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National Meeting Marks Centenary of Birth of President Kim Il Sung [KCNA]

Posted in DPR Korea, Juche Idea, Kim Il Sung, Kim Jong Il, Korean Central News Agency of DPRK, Pyongyang, Workers Party of Korea WPK on April 15, 2012 by Zuo Shou / 左手

Pyongyang, April 14 (KCNA) — A national meeting took place with splendor at Kim Il Sung Stadium here Saturday to celebrate the centenary of birth of President Kim Il Sung.

Present there was Kim Jong Un, first secretary of the WPK, first chairman of the National Defence Commission of the DPRK and supreme commander of the Korean People’s Army, who is supreme leader of the Korean people.

Also present there were Kim Yong Nam, Choe Yong Rim, Choe Ryong Hae, Ri Yong Ho and other senior party, state and army officials, the chairpersons of friendly parties, deputies to the Supreme People’s Assembly, officials of the party, armed forces and power bodies, social organizations, ministries and national institutions, anti-Japanese revolutionary fighters, servicepersons of KPA and the Korean People’s Internal Security Forces, officials in the fields of science, education, literature and arts, public health and media, heroes, bereaved families of revolutionary martyrs, those related to the revolutionary activities of the President, persons of merit, working people in Pyongyang, overseas compatriots and the chief of the Pyongyang mission of the Anti-Imperialist National Democratic Front.

Present there on invitation were diplomatic envoys of various countries, representatives of international organizations and members of the military attaches corps here, those who attended the World Congress on the Juche idea and other foreign guests.

Kim Yong Nam, member of the Presidium of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the WPK and president of the Presidium of the SPA of the DPRK, delivered a report.

He said that Kim Il Sung was the most outstanding leader of the revolution whom the Korean people acclaimed for the first time in the nation’s history spanning thousands of years, a peerlessly great man and a great sage of mankind, the reporter said, referring to the exploits performed by him.

The reporter went on:

Kim Il Sung built socialism centered on the popular masses, setting a worldwide example in the revolution and construction.

He embraced all people by pursuing noble benevolent and all-embracing politics, sparing nothing for the people, and showed profound loving care for them.

He put forth fair, aboveboard and reasonable reunification proposals including the three principles of national reunification, the proposal for founding the Democratic Federal Republic of Koryo and the 10-point programme for the great unity of the whole nation and provided a new program for achieving great national unity, escalating the movement for national reunification into a nationwide movement.

He set forth outstanding ideas, strategies and tactics on global independence and made an undying contribution to the socialist movement, the unity and solidarity of the non-aligned movement and the development of friendly and cooperative relations with those countries aspiring after independence.

His idea and cause were steadfastly carried forward by leader Kim Jong Il who wisely led the sacred struggle to accomplish the revolutionary cause of Juche as the dearest comrade and comrade-in-arms most loyal to him.

Kim Jong Il led the army and people of the DPRK to rise up during the Arduous March, forced march when the destiny of the country and the nation stood at crossroads and took the lead in the drive for weathering such stern ordeals that might have forced others to collapse a hundred times, paving a wide avenue for prosperity.

He formulated the independent line and proposals for reunification laid out by the President as the three charters for national reunification and ushered in the June 15 era of reunification in which the nation advances in the idea of “By our nation itself”, thus bringing about a landmark phase of national reunification.

He made a great contribution to advancing the socialist movement, achieving peace and stability in Northeast Asia and the rest of the world and accomplishing the cause of independence against imperialism with his superb diplomatic strategy and energetic external activities.

The reporter stressed that the army and people of the DPRK are full of conviction in sure victory and optimism and the future of Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il’s Korea is immensely rosy and bright as they have Kim Jong Un, a peerlessly illustrious commander, at the helm of the Party and the revolution.

Similar meetings took place in all provinces, cities, counties and industrial complexes. -0-

KCNA English homepage:

“The spirit of Kim Il Sung lives on” – 100 years after his birth [Workers World]

Posted in China, DPR Korea, Japan, Juche Idea, Kim Il Sung, Korean War, Pyongyang, Russia, US foreign occupation, US imperialism, USA, USSR on April 15, 2012 by Zuo Shou / 左手

By Deirdre Griswold
Published Apr 11, 2012

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is preparing to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the birth of Kim Il Sung, an amazing revolutionary who for more than 60 years led the Korean people’s struggle against imperialist domination.

His life began in April 1912, shortly after Japan had formally annexed Korea as its colony. His political development included years of anti-colonial struggle and the building of an anti-imperialist armed guerrilla force that finally achieved liberation of the north in 1945.

Kim Il Sung had to reorient the struggle after the defeat of Japan, when the United States sent troops to occupy the southern half of Korea and tried to roll back the socialist revolution in the north. The Korean people knew from direct and bitter experience what Japanese colonial rule had meant. But they were to discover that U.S. imperialism was just as brutal and just as intent on controlling and exploiting Korea, albeit under the name of “democracy.”

We cannot do justice in one small article to all that Kim Il Sung accomplished for the Korean struggle and the world movement for socialism. In this piece, we will focus on why Kim became a communist, as explained in his autobiographical series of books entitled “Reminiscences with the Century.” (Foreign Languages Publishing House, Pyongyang)

Kim came from a family of poor farmers who sacrificed much to give their children an education. His family was proud of having fought foreign aggressors: “When the U.S. imperialist aggressors’ ship General Sherman sailed up the River Taedong and anchored at Turu Islet, my great-grandfather, together with some other villagers, collected ropes from all the houses and stretched them across the river … to block the way of the pirate ship.” The ship opened fire on the people of Pyongyang, but the villagers set it ablaze and it sank with all hands aboard. This struggle in 1866 resonated in the Kim family for generations.

Kim Il Sung described his father, who died at the early age of 31, as “a pioneer of our country’s national liberation movement.” His father was an early organizer for the Korean National Association, which was building resistance to the “living hell” created by Japanese imperialism. One of Kim’s first political memories was, at the age of six, visiting his father in a Japanese-run prison. The next year, during an uprising for independence, he saw for the first time the killing of a Korean by troops of the colonial regime.

In this period, many Korean patriots fled to China and Siberia, where there were large Korean communities. After the 1917 Russian Revolution, “when the combined forces of imperialism and the internal enemy who followed their dictates pounced upon the Soviet Union … thousands of Korean young people gave their blood and lives with arms in hand either in the guerrilla ranks or in the Red Army in order to defend the socialist system,” Kim wrote.

+ Inspired by the proletarian revolution +

This revolution of the workers and peasants in Russia inspired the anti-imperialist movement in neighboring Korea. Kim remembered his father explaining his idea of the proletarian revolution “as the building of a new society which would provide rice to those who had no food and … clothes to those who had no clothing … [and thus] he awakened the workers, peasants and other working masses to a progressive idea and united them into one revolutionary force.”

The Korean Communist Party had been founded in 1925 but “ended its existence as an organized force in 1928 owing to the cruel suppression on the part of the Japanese imperialists and the factional strife in its highest circles,” Kim wrote.

While still in his teens, Kim Il Sung became immersed in the political debates roiling the Korean exile community in Manchuria, a province of China. The Korean nationalist movement and the communist movement often were in struggle with each other, and Kim looked for ways to bring the best of them together.

The Korean revolutionaries in China also had to respect the fact that they were in another country and had important relations with the Chinese Communist Party, which itself suffered big setbacks in 1927.

Different groups of communists vied for recognition from the Comintern, based in Moscow, which dissolved the Korean Communist Party in 1928. It was in this period that Kim began developing the view that later became known as “Juche,” or self-reliance. Of his group of young revolutionaries, he wrote, “We came to the conclusion that it would be impossible to found a revolutionary party by rebuilding the party that had been dissolved or by relying on the existing generation that was infected with the vicious habit of factional strife.”

Rather than being discouraged by these problems, the new generation of revolutionaries in 1930 formed the Society for Rallying Comrades, in which “the communists from among the new generation overcame the mistakes made by the communists of the preceding generations and pioneered a new way of winning over the masses and employing the art of leadership. The heroic fighting spirit and the revolutionary fighting traits displayed by the communists of the new generation became the motive force enabling us to defeat the Japanese imperialist aggressors.”

The leadership of the DPRK today is imbued with this spirit of resistance to foreign domination and reliance on the masses of people to build a socialist society. It is this spirit that has enabled the Korean Revolution to endure despite a century of Japanese and later U.S. imperialist aggression.
Articles copyright 1995-2012 Workers World. Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any medium without royalty provided this notice is preserved.

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