Archive for the Croatia Category

Croatia Elects Former NATO Official President [Strategic Culture Foundation]

Posted in Albania, Anti-communism, CIA, Croatia, EU, European Union, Georgia, Germany, NATO, Nazism, Poland, Ukraine, US imperialism, USA, USA 21st Century Cold War, USSR, Yugoslavia - former FRY on February 11, 2015 by Zuo Shou / 左手

2015/1/15

by Wayne Madsen

Croatia has become the latest European nation to propel a confirmed Atlanticist and former resident of the United States into high political office. Conservative politician and former NATO assistant secretary general for public diplomacy Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic defeated incumbent center-left president Ivo Josipovic by a…razor-thin vote. In the case of Croatia’s second-round, the vote was 50.54 percent for Grabar-Kitarovic to 49.46 percent for Josipovic…

Grabar-Kitarovic’s majority was enabled by receiving the required 21,000-vote majority from Croatians living abroad. Grabar-Kitarovic lived as a graduate student in Washington, DC and Boston and soon became Croatian ambassador in Washington and the chief propaganda assistant to NATO’s neoconservative Secretary General, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, the former Danish prime minister.

As an international exchange student, Grabar-Kitarovic graduated in 1986 from Los Alamos High School in New Mexico, the home to the Los Alamos National Laboratories, where U.S. intelligence and military agencies develop the latest nuclear weaponry and other warfare technology…

…Grabar-Kitarovic’s political science master’s thesis at the University of Zagreb in Croatia was titled «American-Soviet Relations during the Reagan Administration and the End of the Cold War», which is very reminiscent of the Cold War academic pursuits of former U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. Rice’s PhD dissertation dealt with the Czechoslovak Army and the Communist Party. Her book, which was based on her dissertation, was titled, «The Soviet Union and the Czechoslovak Army, 1948-1983: Uncertain Allegiance». During her PhD studies at the University of Denver, Rice was taken under the wing of Dr. Josef Korbel, the father of former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, whose god-daughter, Susan Rice is Barack Obama’s national security adviser. Korbel, Albright, the two Rices, and Grabar-Kitarovic represent a post-World War II U.S. intelligence operation to groom the next generation of Cold Warriors and seed U.S. citizens and residents of Eastern and Central European descent into the top echelons of government from Estonia to the Republic of Georgia.

Croatia, along with Albania, were the last two countries to join NATO. Croatia joined the Western military bloc in 2009.

Grabar-Kitarovic is a member of the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), the neo-fascist oriented party of the late Croatian president Franjo Tudjman. She served as foreign minister of Croatia from 2005 to 2008 and was instrumental in pushing for Croatia’s joining the European Union in both that position as European Integration Minister from 2003 to 2005. Croatia joined the EU in 2013. EU membership brought Croatia the fourth-highest unemployment rate in Europe and a 50 percent jobless rate of Croatians under the age of 25. These statistics, which should have hurt the pro-EU Grabar-Kitarovic’s razor-thin victory in the presidential election even more suspicious and dubious.

Grabar-Kitarovic was a resident Fulbright scholar at George Washington University in Washington, DC where she specialized in international relations. Fulbright scholarship programs are used by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency to recruit foreign students with future political potential into the ranks of the intelligence agency’s vast network of assets and agents.

Eastern and Central European governments teem with such American agents of influence and intelligence assets…[examples follow, see original article]

…Grabar-Kitarovic is just the latest American agent-of-influence to lead a NATO country in Eastern/Central Europe. Placing American puppets in governance of supposedly-independent nations is reminiscent of Nazi Germany’s and Fascist Italy’s appointment of puppet leaders and administrators in some of the same nations where U.S. lackeys now rule. Today, hardly a soul recalls the names of these puppet entities: the Lokot Autonomy, the Principality of the Pindus, and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Grabar-Kitarovic is the ideological heir of the puppet Nazi State of Croatia, which was led by the fascist Ustashe movement, from which Grabar-Kitarovic’s HDZ party receives so much of its inspiration.

Excerpted by Zuo Shou

Full article link: http://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2015/01/15/croatia-elects-former-nato-official-president.html

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US torture report exposes European powers’ involvement in CIA crimes [World Socialist Website]

Posted in Albania, Austria, Belgium, CIA, Croatia, Czech Republic / Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, George W. Bush, Germany, Greece, Guantanamo Bay concentration camp, Iceland, Italy, Libya, National Security Agency / NSA, NATO, NSA, Poland, Police State, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Syria, Torture, Turkey, U.K., U.K. War Crimes, Ukraine, US "War on Terror", US Government Cover-up, US imperialism, USA on December 14, 2014 by Zuo Shou / 左手

By Alex Lantier
12 December 2014

The publication of the US Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture has exposed the European powers’ complicity in ghastly crimes of US intelligence. Even though European states’ complicity in CIA torture and rendition operations has been documented for nearly a decade, no European officials have been held accountable.

In 2005, the Council of Europe tasked former Swiss prosecutor Dick Marty with preparing a report on secret CIA prisons in Europe. He released two reports, in 2006 and 2007, documenting the complicity of dozens of European states in setting up facilities for illegal CIA rendition and torture. The states involved included Britain, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Spain, Portugal, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Austria, the Czech Republic, Croatia and Albania.

The existence of approximately 1,000 CIA flights and of secret prisons in Bosnia-Herzegovina, in Bucharest (Romania), Antavilas (Lithuania), and Stare Kiejkuty (Poland) has since been confirmed.

Nonetheless, after the US Senate recognized CIA use of the grisliest forms of torture — including murder, sexual assault, sleep deprivation and forcing inmates to stand on broken limbs —officials across Europe reacted by insisting that they should enjoy immunity.

Top officials of the Polish government, which is appealing a July ruling against it over its role in CIA torture by the European Court on Human Rights, denounced the report. “Certain secrets should stay that way,” said Polish Defense Minister Tomasz Siemoniak.

Polish prosecutors have been investigating the case for six years, including a two-year investigation of former Polish intelligence chief Zbigniew Siemiatkowski, without bringing any charges. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the alleged mastermind of the September 11 attacks, was waterboarded as soon as he arrived at Stare Kiejkuty. One medical officer there noted: “We are basically doing a series of near-drownings.”

Other detainees at Stare Kiejkuty, which housed Saudi, Algerian and Yemeni detainees, were subjected to mock executions with a power drill while standing hooded and naked.
Former Polish President Aleksander Kwasniewski lamely claimed that CIA officials did not explain how they planned to use their secret prisons in Poland. “It was a question as we saw it only of creating secret sites,” he said, adding that he closed down the facility in 2003 because “the Americans’ secret activities began to worry” Polish authorities.
Lithuanian officials confirmed that the black site named “detention center Violet” by the US Senate report appears to be the Lithuanian detention center near the capital, Vilnius, identified in a 2009-2010 parliamentary investigation. Lawmaker Arvydas Anusauskas told Reuters, “The US Senate report, to me, makes a convincing case that prisoners were indeed held at the Lithuanian site.”

Abu Zubaydah, a Saudi detainee now kept at Guantanamo Bay, has stated that he was kept and tortured at the site. Washington paid the Lithuanian government $1 million to “show appreciation” for operating the prison, according to the US Senate report, though the funds were reportedly paid out through “complex mechanisms.”

Lithuanian Prime Minister Algirdas Butkevicius has asked Washington to confirm whether or not the CIA tortured prisoners at its secret prisons in Lithuania.

British Prime Minister David Cameron dismissed the issue of torture and Britain’s role in rendition flights to countries including Libya, saying that it had been “dealt with from a British perspective.” He told the public to trust British intelligence to police itself, as official investigations had “produced a series of questions that the intelligence and security community will look at … I’m satisfied that our system is dealing with all of these issues.”

In fact, the CIA torture report has revealed the advanced state of collapse of democratic forms of rule not only in the United States, but also in Europe. What has emerged across Europe since the September 11 attacks is the framework of a police state far more technically powerful than even the most ruthless dictatorships of twentieth-century Europe. The methods deployed as part of the “war on terror” will also be used against opposition in the working class to unpopular policies of austerity and war.

European governments participate in the digital spying on telecommunications and Internet activities of the European population, carried out by the US National Security Agency and its local counterparts, as revealed by Edward Snowden. They also are planning joint repression of social protests, based on talks between German federal police, France’s Gendarmerie, and other security forces with the European Commission.

“During my investigation, people called me a traitor and said I was making things up,” Marty told the Tribune de Genève. “The Europeans disappointed me. Germany, the United Kingdom, and many others blocked the establishment of the truth. In fact, most European countries actively participated in a system that legitimated large-scale state crimes.”

“I think we must recall, and it is very important, that this operation, this anti-terrorist policy, was decided and carried out under the aegis of NATO,” Marty told Swiss television channel RTS.

“The United States invoked Article 5 of the NATO Charter, which says that if one member of the alliance is attacked militarily [e.g., as Washington claimed, on September 11], all NATO members are required to come to its aid,” Marty said. Once this was accepted, he added, “there were a whole series of secret accords between the United States and European powers. And all the European countries pledged to grant total immunity to CIA agents, which is manifestly illegal.”

The European powers’ participation in the CIA torture program underscores the utter hypocrisy of the humanitarian pretensions used to justify operations ranging from NATO wars in Syria and Libya to this February’s NATO-backed, fascist-led putsch in Ukraine.

The ferocious opposition of the European ruling elites to attempts to bring this criminality to light is the clearest indication that the democratic rights of the population cannot be secured by appeals to any section of the state. The defense of the population’s democratic and social rights is a question of the revolutionary mobilization of the working class in an international struggle against European capitalism.

Article link: https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2014/12/12/euto-d12.html

Brazilians protest against hosting 2014 World Cup [Xinhua]

Posted in Brazil, Croatia on May 21, 2014 by Zuo Shou / 左手

BRASILIA, May 15 (Xinhua) — Brazilians frustrated with poor public services took to the streets Thursday across the country, claiming their taxes are spent on preparations to host the upcoming 2014 World Cup.

The so-called Day of Struggle against the World Cup saw demonstrations in seven of the 12 state capitals set to host World Cup matches, and dozens of other cities.

Massive public spending on the large-scale sporting event, coupled with a transit fare hike, first sparked anti-government protests a year ago, but as the June 12 to July 13 World Cup nears, protests have started up again.

The Association of World Cup People’s Committees (Ancop) presented a list of grievances they want authorities to address, including their demand to protest freely during the championship, compensation for the families of construction workers who died building the stadiums and other venues, a guarantee that families displaced to make way for the new stadiums will be provided with adequate housing, a freer press and more government spending on public transportation systems and a free fare.

In Sao Paulo, groups of protesters blocked several major avenues, including streets near the city’s Corinthians Arena, site of the inaugural match between Brazil and Croatia on June 12.

In Brasilia, the Movement of Workers Without Shelter (MTST) occupied the offices of a state-run real estate agency and demand the government fulfill its pledge to help those unable to afford a home.

Demonstrations also took place in Rio de Janeiro, Fortaleza, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre and Salvador, as well as smaller cities.

The protests appear to contradict Sports Minister Aldo Rebelo’s assertion on Tuesday, that protests during the World Cup will be ” isolated events.”

Editor: yan

Article link: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/world/2014-05/16/c_133337241.htm

Feature: People of former Yugoslavia pay respects to Tito [Xinhua]

Posted in Croatia, Kosovo, Serbia, Yugoslavia - former FRY on May 13, 2014 by Zuo Shou / 左手

BELGRADE, May 4 (Xinhua) — Several thousand people coming from across their former country walked on Sunday around the grave of the lifetime president of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and lied wreaths and flowers on the 34th anniversary of his death on May 4th, 1980 at the age of 87.

People from all six former republics of the former Yugoslavia: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia, Macedonia and Montenegro gathered since the morning in front of the “House of Flowers” that is a part of the Museum of Yugoslavian History and contains graves of Josip Broz Tito and his wife Jovanka that died in 2013.

All of them came here with organized tours across the former Yugoslavia, because, as they say, all of them share the same feeling that Tito’s country was a fulfilment of a dream that will hardly ever repeat.

“Our father died on this day, but he is still in our hearts. In his time we had everything and it was all for free-medicine, books everything. That is why we come here for ten consecutive years”, says Zivko Mitrev from Kocani, Macedonia to Xinhua.

Another one from the same Macedonian group, Georgi Nikolov says that Yugoslavia for him never fell apart. “In my heart Yugoslavian spirit still survives, and I’ll never give up from it, as it is my path – Tito’s path for all of us,” he told Xinhua.

Rade Sobic that was born back in 1940s in Drvar, Bosnia and Herzegovina but lives for 50 years in Belgrade says that he owes everything to Yugoslavia and Tito, as he got educated, had a job, and now receives a pension.

“Josip Broz Tito liberated the people from Hitler’s slavery but our nations got divided twenty five years from the outside, by foreign mercenaries,” he says, after leaving a red flower at the white marble plate with four large golden letters carved on top.

Sadika Badic Abdic from Cazin in Bosnia and Herzegovina says that seeing all these people “and to see all this, presented in front of me raises on my head and tears rushed on my eyes.”

“Tito’s country was a state. This now is nothing,” she says and explains she came to the “House of Flowers” for the first time and is amazed with the look of the grave of Josip Broz Tito and his wife Jovanka who died in 2013 and buried next to her husband.

Ramiza Bemic also from Cazin came to Belgrade with her friend, Emina Hadzic, to celebrate her 31st birthday, and visit Tito’s grave.

“Although I only lived in Tito’s country for a short while, everything echoes with memories on what things once were. I came here to see it”, Ramiza Bemic told Xinhua.

Several hundred people attended the ceremony at the Museum that started with anthems of Yugoslavia and the official anthem of the Socialist International.

Lieutenant General of the Yugoslav People’s Army, JNA Stevan Mirkovic, that was also a member of the Yugoslav Partisans during the liberation struggle in the Second World War made a speech to the gathered people in which he criticized former republics of Yugoslavia for misinterpreting historical facts and denying the benefits that communists brought to the Yugoslavian people.

Editor: Mu Xuequan

Article link: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/world/2014-05/04/c_126460579.htm

“Ukraine and Yugoslavia” by Diane Johnstone [counterpunch]

Posted in Corporate Media Critique, Croatia, Media cover-up, NATO, Pentagon, Russia, State Department, Ukraine, US Government Cover-up, US imperialism, USA, Yugoslavia - former FRY on March 29, 2014 by Zuo Shou / 左手

March 21, 2014

by DIANA JOHNSTONE

“I sometimes get the feeling that somewhere across that huge puddle, in America, people sit in a lab and conduct experiments, as if with rats, without actually understanding the consequences of what they are doing.”

– Vladimir Putin, 4 March 2014

Paris.

Five years ago, I wrote a paper for a Belgrade conference commemorating the tenth anniversary of the start of the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. In that paper I stressed that the disintegration of Yugoslavia had been used as an experimental laboratory to perfect various techniques that would subsequently be used in so-called “color revolutions” or other “regime change” operations directed against leaders considered undesirable by the United States government.

At that time, I specifically pointed to the similarities between the Krajina region of former Yugoslavia and Ukraine. Here is what I wrote at the time:

[‘…]Where did the wars of Yugoslav disintegration break out most violently? In a region called the Krajina. Krajina means borderland. So does Ukraine – it is a variant of the same Slavic root. Both Krajina and Ukraine are borderlands between Catholic Christians in the West and Orthodox Christians in the East. The population is divided between those in the East who want to remain tied to Russia, and those in the West who are drawn toward Catholic lands. But in Ukraine as a whole, polls show that some seventy percent of the population is against joining NATO. Yet the US and its satellites keep speaking of Ukraine’s “right” to join NATO. Nobody’s right not to join NATO is ever mentioned.

The condition for Ukraine to join NATO would be the expulsion of foreign military bases from Ukrainian territory. That would mean expelling Russia from its historic naval base at Sebastopol, essential for Russia’s Black Sea fleet. Sebastopol is on the Crimean peninsula, inhabited by patriotic Russians, which was only made an administrative part of Ukraine in 1954 by Nikita Khrushchev, a Ukrainian.

Rather the way Tito, a Croat, gave almost the whole Adriatic coastline of Yugoslavia to Croatia, and generally enforced administrative borders detrimental to the Serbs.

As the same causes may have the same effects, US insistence on “liberating” Ukraine from Russian influence may have the same effect as the West’s insistence on “liberating” the Catholic Croats from the Orthodox Serbs. That effect is war. But instead of a small war, against the Serbs, who had neither the means nor even the will to fight the West (since they largely thought they were part of it), a war in Ukraine would mean a war with Russia. A nuclear superpower. And one that will not stand idly by while the United States continues to move its fleet and its air bases to the edges of Russian territory, both in the Black Sea and in the Baltic, on land, sea and air.

Every day, the United States is busy expanding NATO, training forces, building bases, making deals. This goes on constantly but is scarcely reported by the media. The citizens of NATO countries have no idea what they are being led into. (…)

War was easy when it meant the destruction of a helpless and harmless Serbia, with no casualties among the NATO aggressors. But war with Russia – a fierce superpower with a nuclear arsenal – would not be so much fun.[..’]

So, now here we are five years later, and I am about to attend another commemoration in Belgrade, this time of the fifteenth anniversary of the start of the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. And this time, I really have nothing to say. I have already said it, over and over. Others are saying similar things, with more authority, from Professor Stephen Cohen to Paul Craig Roberts. Many of us have warned against the dangerous folly of seeking endlessly to provoke Russia by enlisting her neighbors in a military alliance whose enemy could only be… Russia. Of all Russia’s neighbors, none is more organically linked to Russia by language, history, geopolitical reality, religion and powerful emotions. The U.S. Undersecretary of State for Europe and Eurasia, Victoria Nuland, has openly boasted that the United States has spent five billion dollars to gain influence in Ukraine – in reality, in order to draw Ukraine away from Russia and into the U.S. military alliance. It is now no secret that Ms Nuland intrigued even against America’s European allies – who had a less brutal compromise in mind – in order to replace the elected President with the American protégé she calls “Yats”, who indeed was soon installed in a far right government resulting from violent actions by one of the very few violent fascist movements still surviving in Europe.

True, Western media do not report all the facts at their disposal. But the internet is there, and the facts are on the internet. And despite all this, European governments do not protest, there are no demonstrations in the streets, much of public opinion seems to accept the notion that the villain of this story is the Russian president, who is accused of engaging in unprovoked aggression against Crimea – even though he was responding to one of the most blatant provocations in history…

Excerpted; full article link: http://www.counterpunch.org/2014/03/21/ukraine-and-yugoslavia/

Tito’s 120th birth anniversary marked in Croatia – PHOTOS [Xinhua]

Posted in Croatia, Yugoslavia - former FRY on May 28, 2012 by Zuo Shou / 左手

2012-05-27

…attend[ing] a commemorating event at the former Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito’s birthplace in Kumrovec, Croatia, May 26, 2011. Around 10,000 people on Saturday gathered here to commemorate 120th birth anniversary of former Yugoslav leader. (Xinhua/Miso Lisanin)

Photo article link: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/photo/2012-05/27/c_131613305.htm

“From the Post Cold War to the Post 9/11 Era: Did 9/11 Really ‘Change Everything’?” by Prof. Ismael Hossein-zadeh [Globalresearch.ca]

Posted in 9/11, Afghanistan, Albania, Bolivia, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, Ecuador, George W. Bush, Haiti, Iraq, Libya, Pakistan, Pentagon, Peru, Somalia, Torture, US "War on Terror", US imperialism, USA, USSR, Venezuela on September 26, 2011 by Zuo Shou / 左手

Sept. 14, 2011

The American people are told, again and again, that 9/11 “changed everything.” Is this really true?

The answer is both yes, and no.

Yes, because 9/11 prompted policies of regime change, preemptive strike, and humanitarian intervention, which, in turn, triggered the wars and military interventions in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Yemen and Libya. At home, it provided justification for the institution of the Patriot Act, Homeland Security, outsourcing of torture, restriction of personal/civil liberties and the ballooning of the Pentagon budget.

And no, because the militaristic policies and security measures that were thus put into effect in the immediate aftermath of the 9/11 attacks had been in the making for nearly a dozen years before the attacks took place.

There is overwhelming evidence that the US policies of preemptive strike and regime change started not with the collapse of the World Trade Center in 2001 but with the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Beneficiaries of war dividends, that is, the military-industrial-security complex, were alarmed by the demise of the Soviet Union,by the end of the “communist threat” as the ready-made justifier of continued escalation of the Pentagon budget, andby the demands for “peace dividends.” “What we were afraid of was people who would say . . . ‘Let’s bring all of the troops home, and let’s abandon our position in Europe,’”acknowledged Paul D. Wolfowitz, Undersecretary of Defense under President Bush Sr. “It’s hard to imagine just how uncertain the world looked after the end of the Cold War.”

Not surprisingly, in the immediate aftermath of the Cold War, and in the face of widespread demands for “peace dividends,” the powerful interests vested in the military-security capitalmoved swiftly to fend off such demands by successfully inventing all kinds of “new threats to the national interests of the United States.” Instead of the Soviet Union, the “menace of rogue states, global terrorism, and militant Islam” would have to do as new enemies. Having thus effectively substituted “new sources of threat” for the “communist threat” of the Cold War era, powerful beneficiaries of military spending (working through the Pentagon and a number of militaristic think tanks like the Project for the New American Century, Center for Security Policy, Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs and National Institute for Public Policy) managed not only to maintain but, in fact, expand the Pentagon budget beyond the Cold War years.

The 9/11 attacks, Osama bin Laden, global terrorism, and US military aggressions in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan, Yemen, Libya and elsewhere in the Muslim-Arab world can be better understood against this background: the systemic or internal dynamics of the military-industrial-security complex as an existentially-driven juggernaut to war and militarism that, in the aftermath of the Cold War era, needed all kinds of enemies and boogiemen in order to justify its continued usurpation of the lion’s share of the public finance, or the US treasury.

Major post-Cold War US military strategies such as regime change were formulated not after the 9/11 attacks, or under President Bush Jr., but under President Bush Sr., that is, soon after the demise of the Soviet Union. The early 1990s Pentagon architects of those strategies included the then Secretary of Defense Richard Cheney, Paul D. Wolfowitz, then Undersecretary of Defense,ZalmayKhalilzad,then a Wolfowitz aide, I. Lewis “Scooter”Libby,then principal Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Strategy and Colin L. Powell, then chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Most of what the Pentagon team crafted in the immediate aftermath of the Cold War was published as a government document under Cheney’s name as America’s “Defense Strategy for the 1990s”—the document also came to be known as Defense Planning Guidance.

Almost all of the Pentagon’s post-Cold War aggressive military strategies such as preemptive strike, expansion of NATO, regime change, nation building, or humanitarian intervention can be traced back to the notorious Defense Planning Guidance of the early 1990s. As James Mann(of the Center for Strategic & International Studies) put it, “What the Pentagon officials had succeeded in doing, within months of the Soviet collapse, was to lay out the intellectual blueprint for a new world dominated — then, now and in the future — by U.S. military power.”

Although President Clinton did not officially embrace Cheney’s Defense Planning Guidance, he did not disclaim it either. And while he slightly slowed down the growth in the pentagon budget, he too had his own share of military operations abroad — in Somalia, Iraq, Haiti, and various provinces of the former Yugoslavia. The Federation of American Scientists has recorded a list of US foreign military engagements in the 1990s which shows that in the first decade after the collapse of the Berlin Wall, that is, under Presidents Bush Sr. and Bill Clinton, the United States engaged in 134 such operations. Here is a sample: Operation Eagle Eye (Kosovo), Operation Determined Effort (Bosnia-Herzegovina), Operation Quick Lift (Croatia), Operation Nomad Vigil (Albania), Operation Desert Thunder (Iraq), Operation Seva Verde (Columbia), Operation Constant Vigil (Bolivia), Operation Fundamental Response (Venezuela), Operation Infinite Reach (Sudan/Afghanistan), Operation Safe Border (Peru/Ecuador), Operation United Shield (Somalia), Operation Safe Haven/Safe Passage (Cuba), Operation Sea Signal (Haiti), Operation Safe Harbor (Haiti), Operation Desert Storm (Southwest Asia), and many more.

With the accession of George W. Bush to the presidency, all the Pentagon contributors to the notorious 1992 Defense Planning Guidance also returned to positions of power in the government. Cheney of course became Vice President, Powell became Secretary of State, Wolfowitz moved into the number two position at the Pentagon, as Donald Rumsfeld’s deputy, and Lewis “Scooter” Libby, became the Vice President’s chief of staff and national security adviser.

Although George W. Bush’s administration thus arrived in the White House with plans of “regime change” in the Arab-Muslim world, it could not carry out those plans without a pretext. The 9/11 attacks (regardless of who planned and carried them out) provided the needed pretext. The evidence thus clearly shows that, contrary to the claims of many critics, including some distinguished figures like Noam Chomsky, 9/11 served more as an excuse, or bogeyman, than a “trap” laid by Osama bin Laden in order to bleed and disgrace the United States by prompting it to wage war and military aggression against the Arab-Muslim world.

The administration wasted no time manipulating the public’s fear of further terrorist attacks to rally support for the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq.As the administration was preparing for the invasion of Iraq in early 2003, it also dusted off the Pentagon’s 1992 Defense Planning Guidance and promoted it as the “Bush Doctrine” for the new, post-9/11 world. The post-9/11 version of Defense Planning Guidance retains — indeed, strengthens — all the major elements of the 1992 version, although at times it uses slightly modified terminology.

That the U.S. military response to the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and its response to the collapse of the World Trade Center in 2001 were basically the same should not come as a surprise to anyone familiar with the dynamics and profit imperatives of the business of war: continued increase of the Pentagon budget and continued expansion of the sales markets for the war industry. The pretexts or tactics for pursuing higher war dividends may change (from the “threat of communism” to the “threat of rogue states, or global terrorism, or militant Islam”) but the objective or strategy remains the same — permanent war and, consequently, continuous escalation of the Pentagon budget and higher profits for the interests vested in military/security capital.

Ismael Hossein-zadeh is Professor Emeritus of Economics, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa. He is the author of The Political Economy of U.S. Militarism (Palgrave-Macmillan 2007) and the Soviet Non-capitalist Development: The Case of Nasser’s Egypt (Praeger Publishers 1989).

Article link: http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=26553