Archive for the FARC Category

Two Colombian guerrilla groups announce truce ahead of presidential elections [Xinhua]

Posted in Colombia, FARC on May 24, 2014 by Zuo Shou / 左手

HAVANA, May 16 (Xinhua) — Colombia’s two guerrilla groups, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN), have decreed a unilateral eight-day ceasefire to coincide with the May 25 presidential elections, a rebel spokesman announced Friday…

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CIA role in Colombia assassination program bared [World Socialist Website]

Posted in "War on Drugs" pretext, Bill Clinton, CIA, Colombia, Corporate Media Critique, FARC, National Security Agency / NSA, NSA, Obama, Pentagon, US "War on Terror", US Government Cover-up, US imperialism, USA, Venezuela on January 1, 2014 by Zuo Shou / 左手

By Bill Van Auken
24 December 2013

Both the US Central Intelligence Agency and the National Security Agency have participated for over a decade in a secret targeted assassination program that has killed at least two dozen leaders of guerrilla movements in Colombia, according to a lengthy article written by the Washington Post’s investigative reporter Dana Priest.

The operation involved the provision of “smart bomb” GPS guidance systems — at the cost of $30,000 for each bomb — that would allow the pinpointing of targeted individuals in the Colombian jungle. It was also based on the systematic and continuous interception of Colombian communications by the NSA.

Those target included senior commanders of the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a peasant-based movement that emerged nearly five decades ago in the context of armed resistance to the forced expropriation of small landholdings by Colombia’s oligarchy and the ELN (National Liberation Army), a smaller Castroite guerrilla movement operating in the northeast of the country.

The operation was funded through a secret “black” budget, over and above the $9 billion in primarily military aid that Washington has poured into the South American country since the Clinton administration launched “Plan Colombia” on the pretext of carrying out a “war on drugs.” In the wake of the September 11 attacks, the Colombian intervention was woven into the “war on terror” propaganda used to justify US militarism internationally and focused increasingly on destroying the guerrilla movements challenging the Colombian government…

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Farc peace talks: Colombia unveils major breakthrough [Guardian]

Posted in Colombia, FARC on June 2, 2013 by Zuo Shou / 左手

Sibylla Brodzinsky in Bogotá
27 May 2013

The Colombian government and leftist Farc rebels have announced a major breakthrough in peace talks aimed at ending nearly half a century of conflict, heralding a “radical transformation” of the war-ravaged countryside…

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(c) Guardian News & Media Ltd

Colombian guerrillas: capitulation or further fighting? [Strategic Culture Foundation]

Posted in Brazil, CIA, Colombia, DEA, Ecuador, FARC, FBI, Mossad, Panama, Pentagon, US imperialism, USA on December 15, 2011 by Zuo Shou / 左手

Nil NIKANDROV | 01.12.2011 |

Media reports about the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) are often accompanied with a photograph which depicts a guerrilla column marching. They are several thousand of armed men, all wearing camouflage uniform[s], with armbands featuring the Colombian national colors. Also on the photo is Manuel Marulanda, Commander of the FARC guerrilla army during four decades of insurgency against the Colombian state. To stage such kind of a ‘show’ march would be impossible. The FARC army is being attacked from all possible sides. The guerrillas have to consider all their actions to avoid clashes with numerous soldiers of the Colombian army.

Marulanda died of a heart attack in March, 2008, aged 77, and was buried – according to his will – in the forest, not to surrender to enemies even after his death. The 55-year-old Sanez Guillermo Varfas, better known as ‘Alfonso Cano’, became Marulanda`s successor. Cano faced a very challenging task to help the guerrillas maintain the fighting spirit, ensure stable supplies of arms, food and medicines to the army. After being attacked by the Colombian army and US security forces commanded by Raúl Reyes, FARC rebels no longer have an opportunity to have a break in the areas bordering Colombia`s neighboring countries and discuss their further strategy. Some FARC and ELN (National Liberation Army) rebels had already been arrested in Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador and Panama.

In the past three years FARC has suffered big losses. The deaths of Reyes, Ivan Rios, Briceno Suarez and other comandantes could not but have affected the success of the guerrilla army. As President Juan Manuel Santos put it, “the killing of Alfonso Cano has become the greatest blow to the FARC in the entire 40-year history of its existence”.

This all proves that the Colombian army and intelligence forces have become much more sophisticated. Analysts say that FARC is being closely watched by the CIA, the FBI and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), as well as Mossad agents. The killing of Cano would not have become a reality without their participation. The above mentioned organizations have used all means, including threats to family members, to learn as much information about FARC as possible.

In July, 2010, the US managed to locate Cano`s guerrilla camp, shared the information with Colombia, and its army attempted to assassinate Cano. The operation resulted in the death of Cano`s 10 security guards, but the commander himself survived. A second attempt, coded Operation ‘Odyssey’, took place on November 4, 2011, in south-eastern department of Cauca, and was successful: Alfonso Cano was killed. Inspired by the results, Santos urged FARC rebels to surrender, saying that they had no other alternative but stop resistance if they did not want to be killed or jailed.

Santos offers a tough policy towards FARC: no negotiations, no compromise, the enemy must surrender arms and capitulate. The country`s army has been implementing a large-scale anti-guerrilla campaign, haunting rebels in the most distant areas, including those FARC camps which had been earlier considered impossible to reach. The army provides daily updates on FARC and any suspects who could be linked to the guerrilla group. They also regularly discover the guerrillas` arms caches. Last month the army shut down the main radio station operated by the FARC rebels, ‘Voice of Resistance’.

Santos has made it clear that he would stop fighting only in case all guerrillas surrender. Otherwise, the resistance will get even stronger in the coming years, with a $4 billion budget approved to meet these goal[s]. In his recent address to officers, Santos said that ”a final day of this 50-year-long conflict will become closer if we remain as persistent as we`ve been in the past years.” He added that no less than 250,000 troops and 190,000 police officers would be taking part in the anti-FARC campaign. ”Peace will arrive in Colombia, this way or another,”- said Santos.

Reprisal against any leftist groups, including guerrillas, has never stopped in Colombia. Although several commanders of the right-wing United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) group faced trial, the Santos government still favors secret operations which result in the killings of guerrillas and their accomplices without taking them to trial. ‘Paramilitares’ (illegal armed groups) are always ready to compromise the guerrillas by organizing explosions in residential areas, and placing bombs in the offices occupied by newspaper journalists and TV staff. Throwing FARC leaflets at the scene of the attack is often enough to make people believe that FARC rebels are not ready for an open dialog. In fact, all peace initiatives submitted by the FARC, including the release of hostages, had been rejected by both the Uribe government and that led by Santos.

Although the FARC has repeatedly said that guerrillas are banned from taking any part in the production of drugs, not to mention their trafficking, the drug problem is often used by the army to compromise the guerrilla group. There are many drug cartels in Colombia, and their owners enjoy active support from local authorities, farmers, bankers and, of course, the US security services as maintaining control of drug trafficking from Colombia is a strategic task for Washington.

In a statement released on Alfonso Cano`s death, the FARC Secretariat says that ‘peace will come to Colombia only after all problems which had forced people to begin the uprising are solved’. These problems are the following: social inequality, unemployment, clashes between peasants and farmers over lands, and many more. This all has already force[d] at least 4 million Colombians to flee their homes and settle in camps for the replaced in Ecuador, Venezuela and other countries.

Several days after Cano`s death, the FARC had appointed its third commander-in-chief, Rodrigo Londoño Echeverry, aka “Timoshenko”. A member of the FARC since 1982, he received military and political training in Cuba and Russia before he was appointed to the FARC’s ruling body, the Secretariat, in the 1990s. He took his pseudonym in honor of Semyon Timoshenko, a famous Soviet General. When Santos demanded the FARC`s capitulation, Timoshenko said: “FARC are thousands and thousands of revolutionaries,” Timoshenko wrote, “and they brave the hardest conditions because they believe in their cause.” Since Cano`s death the rebels have already carried out some successful operations: attacked a garrison in Cauca, threw grenades into a car column, and blew up an oil pipe in Norte de Santander.

The current number of FARC and ELN rebels in Colombia stands at about 11,000. Among its major principles the group names the realization of a socialist society, fighting oligarchy and forcing US military bases out of the country.

Evidently, President Santos has no intention to sit down for talks with the guerrillas. The US is neither interested in ending the military confrontation for it is the only way to keep its presence on the border with Venezuela, which is a source of numerous problems for the Pentagon. The FARC Secretariat knows this quite well, and believes that sooner or later the US will attack the Bolivarian regime of Hugo Chavez. And this when the guerrilla movement might get a second wind. So, today the FARC`s only task is to withstand at all cost!

Edited by Zuo Shou

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With assassination of FARC leader, the struggle continues in Colombia [Workers World]

Posted in Colombia, FARC, USA on November 19, 2011 by Zuo Shou / 左手

By Berta Joubert-Ceci
Published Nov 9, 2011

Alfonso Cano, leader of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia-People’s Army (FARC-EP) was killed in combat on Nov. 4 by the Colombian Army in that country’s southwest region of Cauca . For several hours that day, dozens of helicopters and planes surrounded this rural area, the home of peasant families, and then they started bombing, hitting the place where the FARC leader was.

Cano’s compañera, Patricia González, and another guerrilla fighter responsible for communications were also killed.

According to a video by mainstream Caracol news, the military had been tracking Cano for more than five years with U.S. assistance and had had army troops infiltrate the community and intercept phone calls of Cano’s closest comrades in an effort to track him down.

TeleSUR had broad coverage of the massacre, reporting that peasants, some of whose homes were bombed, were trying to flee the bombing that continued after Cano’s death.

* Alfonso Cano, communist & FARC leader *

Cano was leader of the FARC, having replaced FARC founder Manuel Marulanda in 2008, when this legendary guerrilla leader died of natural causes in the jungle that housed him and where he fought for most of his life. In his youth, Cano had studied anthropology and law in the National University. He was an activist with the Colombian Communist Party before he joined the FARC.

Cano was among those who founded the Patriotic Union (UP) electoral party in the 1980s when the FARC tried to engage politically in the electoral arena during a cease-fire in the guerrilla war. Though the UP had many political victories in the 1986 elections, the state and death squads assassinated more than 4,000 of its members in the following years, and the FARC resumed the guerrilla struggle.

Under Cano’s leadership, the FARC reoriented their strategies to respond to the newest and vicious anti-insurgent attacks promoted by Washington’s Plan Colombia. This regained them some ground during the period from 2009 to 2011 that they had lost earlier.

Many articles and reports, including a statement from the courageous Colombian former senator and peace activist, Piedad Córdoba, call Cano’s killing a serious setback for the peace process in that beleaguered country. Cano’s leadership helped bring about the release of numerous persons that the guerrilla army had held in the hope of winning the release of the many FARC members in Colombian and U.S. jails and an eventual peace negotiation that would end the Colombian people’s suffering.

Colombian president, Juan Manuel Santos, whom the media have presented as a “gentler” figure compared with his paramilitary predecessor, Álvaro Uribe, is still part of the oligarchy and a pro-war figure. Santos was Uribe’s minister of defense, and as such, he plotted the massacre in 2008 in Sucumbíos, Ecuador, that killed FARC leader Raúl Reyes, several other FARC members and four Mexican students who were visiting the encampment for a research study.

Under his ministry the “false positive” fraud was initiated. The corpses of the mostly young people the army killed were then dressed as guerrillas. The regime then claimed the military had killed “guerrillas in combat.” No one has been punished for these murders.

Santos claims he is working for peace. But instead of engaging in negotiations with the insurgent forces of the FARC and the National Liberation Army (ELN), he states that if you “cut off the head, you kill the monster.” (“acabando la cabeza, termina el monstruo”) Thus he aims to end the guerrilla war by assassinating the insurgent leaders.

* The FARC-EP to continue its struggle *

Santos has misjudged the depth of the FARC. Several FARC leaders have been killed — Reyes, Iván Ríos, Jorge Briceño (el Mono Jojoy) — and the historic leader, Marulanda, died a natural death, yet the guerrilla struggle has continued, with other leaders assuming the direction. There is no reason to believe this time will be different.

Revolutionary belligerent forces are born from conditions of extreme inequality and injustice. They are not terrorists, isolated from the people, but are sustained by the aspirations of a people to be free and develop their own destiny. And as such, they have echo in the poorest sectors of the nation.

In an article by José Antonio Gutiérrez on Oct. 14, entitled “Santos: green light for dirty war in Colombia,” the author explains that wealthy landowners have a vested interest in keeping the war against the insurgency alive. They use the paramilitaries to terrorize communities in order to tighten their hold on the land when the residents flee the paramilitaries’ terror.

Gutiérrez quotes from a report of the Corporación Nuevo Arco Iris (CNAI), an NGO led by León Valencia, whom Gutiérrez says is close to Santos. Even Valencia admits that “the ones that paradoxically guarantee the property of the peasants is an illegal armed group — the FARC — and not the state.” (

The FARC continue to recruit. They are armed. They know the jungle. If they wanted to, they could “escape” and demobilize as Santos has demanded. But they have not. In fact, their public statement after Cano’s death was: “This will not be the first time that the oppressed and exploited of Colombia cry for one of their great leaders. Nor either will it be the first time that they will replace him with the anger and the absolute conviction in the victory. The peace in Colombia will not be born out of any guerrilla demobilization, but of the definitive abolition of the causes that give birth to the uprising. There is an established policy and that is the one that will be continued.” (

Now that the U.S. government has signed the Free Trade Agreement despite the horrendous human rights abuses in Colombia, including the killing of union leaders and social activists, the poverty and extreme inequality will only be likely to increase. Social rumblings by trade union leaders, and social, Indigenous and student activists are already making headlines with a new resurgence of activism.

The armed resistance is a reflection and is part of the whole movement that tries to form a new reality for the benefit of the Colombian masses, each with its own ways of struggle, armed and unarmed, but all towards the same goal: peace, and social and economic justice.

Compañero Alfonso Cano, ¡Presente!

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“On Empire’s ‘SOBs’ and their fate” – Former Colombian President, Narco-Fascist Alvaro Uribe [Strategic Culture Foundation]

Posted in Bolivia, CIA, Colombia, Connection to drugs and narcotics, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, FARC, Fidel Castro, George W. Bush, Hugo Chavez, Nicaragua, Panama, Pentagon, US "War on Terror", US Government Cover-up, US imperialism, USA, Venezuela, Wikileaks on September 7, 2011 by Zuo Shou / 左手

This guy had a hand in the Israel Gaza flotilla massacre UN report whitewash – Zuo Shou

Nil NIKANDROV | 15.08.2011 |

Franklin Delano Roosevelt once said either about the Nicaraguan dictator Somoza (Senior), or about the Dominican tyrant Trujillo: “He may be a son of a bitch, but he’s our son of a bitch”. It has become a usual strategy for the US to place a stake on this category of associates in international affairs… The US guarantees every new “son of a bitch” that he will retain power if he supports the US geo-strategic interests, participates in undermining operations against the regimes and political leaders “unfriendly” to the Empire and ensures its interests in his country.

The US special services have wide incriminating evidence against Alvaro Uribe Velez, second[-to-]last president of Columbia. In the intelligence report “Important Columbian [sic] narco-traffickers”, declassified by [the] Pentagon in 1991, Uribe is listed under N 82: “A Columbian politician and senator, dedicated to collaboration with Medellin cartel at high government levels. Involved in narcotic activities in the US. His father was murdered in Columbia for his connection with narcotic traffickers. He is close personal friend of (the drug-lord) Pablo Escobar Gaviria, participated in Escobar’s political campaign”.

In March 1984, the Columbian authorities seized Escobar’s drug laboratory, confiscating 14 tons of cocaine as well as several planes and helicopters. Among them was a Hughes 500 helicopter, which belonged to the family of Uribe. No one raised any claims against Alvaro back then. Moreover, he soon became the head of the national civil aviation. It was he who allowed his narco-companions to use national landing strips and field airdromes. This is where financial well-being of Uribe and his clan come from.

During his two presidential terms – from 2002 to 2010 – Uribe fervently performed his duties of Washington’s puppet opposing the integration processes in the region which did not envisage the participation of the US. Uribe obstinately interfered with ALBA bloc – the Bolivarian alliance for Latin American nations. The relations of the Columbian leader with Hugo Chavez, Rafael Korrea, Evo Moralez, Daniel Ortega, Fidel and Raul Castro, became more and more tensed [sic]. The official excuse for the confrontation was ALBA’s secret cooperation with Columbian guerilla FARC-ELN groups. Uribe demanded that ALBA states should…recognize those groups as “terrorist groups”, just like the US did, and to support Columbia in its course for a complete defeat of the rebels.

Uribe said “yes” to the proposal of Pentagon and CIA to liquidate [the] temporary headquarters of FARC in a hard-to-reach bordering area in Ecuador. The operation was conducted by the US air forces and a group of Columbian commandos. Among dozens of guerillas who were killed was commandant Raul Reyes, who had been authorized by FARC to start the process of peaceful settlement of the conflict. [The] Bush administration achieved the result it wanted to achieve: the situation in the region reached the critical point and the threat of a military conflict between Columbia, Ecuador and Venezuela became real as never before. Military units, including tank units, received orders to head forward to protect the borders. The possibility of a local war between “sudacas” ( a contemptuous name US diplomats and military men give to South American people), was regarded by Washington’s “hawks” as an acceptable option to “untie knots” in relations with “populist regimes”. The first shots on the Columbian-Ecuadorian and Columbian Venezuelan borders grounded Pentagon’s plan to establish military bases in Columbia and other countries of South America and the Caribbean basin. Opportunities opened up to directly enter the conflict, and among other things to gain control over the oil fields in Venezuela and Ecuador.

WikiLeaks disclosures did not include the secret documents of Pentagon and CIA, which touched upon the escalation of the military conflict, steps of the parties of the conflict and scenarios of further confrontation. These “explosive” documents are unlikely to be declassified in the coming decade. But the participants of those events on the side of Columbia sooner or later may witness a trial on the war that was planned did not break out, the inflammatory role of the US military officials in Columbia and the backdoor maneuvers of Uribe, who tried to make Ecuador and Venezuela unleash the war.

Uribe’s “track record” includes many other campaigns on undermining stability and order in the “populist” countries. It was with the consent of Uribe that the agencies of DAS (security agency of Columbia) were set up in all Latin American countries with big communities of Columbian refugees. The agencies carries out only surveillance activities but under Bush’s war-on-terror doctrine did not exclude “physical neutralization” of the most dangerous “extremists”.

Venezuela is the country which ahs [sic] the largest Columbian community. At least 4 million people settled down in the Bolivarian republic, saving themselves from the governmental repressions due to “links with guerillas”, the revenge of narco-cartels and ultra-right armed groups. The US and Columbian special services use this situation sending the “paramilitares” [sic] units to Venezuela. Their goals are destabilization of the situation in the bordering states, economic diversion (smuggling of petrol and food products), kidnapping. Via DAS channels Uribe knew that a “paramilitares” group of more than hundred people was preparing to attack the presidential palace Miraflores and to kill president Chavez. The Columbian militants used Venezuelan uniform and weapons in order to imitate a spontaneous uprising of the Venezuelan servicemen unhappy with Chavez “communist” policy. Uribe did not mind: may be this time it would be a success. But the plan failed and the militants were arrested near the Venezuelan capital of Caracas right before the attack.

Uribe failed to ensure his reelection for the third term – the Constitutional court of Columbia opposed it. The facts of Uribe regime’s crimes began to float to the surface: graves of thousands of victims, mopping up of Columbians who were represented as guerillas [sic], murders of opponents, trade union and student activists, reporters, representatives of the organizations of native Indian residents of Venezuela. Such practices were used by Americans when they fought guerilla movements in Latin America in 1950-1980s. Uribe added these methods to his arsenal without hesitation. In the long view, the investigation into hacking of phone calls of parliamentary members, officials of General prosecutor’s office, judges and reporters may also have negative consequences for the ex-president. Uribe says he did not give such orders . But the arrest of his personal secretary Bernardo Morena, ex DAS- chief Maria del Pilar Hurtado’s fleeing the country and getting a political asylum in Panama shows the opposite: “phone hacking” took place following the order from Narino palace.

The US government appreciated services of one of its “sons of a bitch”: when his presidential term expired Uribe became a lecturer in one of the US universities and was given a camouflage of a UN official.

The new president Juan Manuel Santos, who was Defense Minister in Uribe’s government, gave up (evident) confrontation with ALBA. Santos met Chaves, signed documents on normalization of relations and cooperation in different fields, including security. Uribe took it as a “betrayal”. With explicit irritation Uribe took the investigations of cases of corruption during his rule and links of his sons with narco-mafia.

Columbian political analysts mark signs of “psychosis” in Uribe’s behavior, who continues to verbally attack Chavez in public once he has an opportunity for it. This happens despite the agreement between Santos and Chavez that Chaves will refrain from critical remarks about the ex-president. The Venezuelan president keeps his word and for Santos Uribe’s verbal attacks become more and more serious problem. Uribe continues to interfere in other issues of domestic and foreign policy of his country.

It has been noticed that Uribe tries not to stay at one place for a long time. He is always on the road as if he is covering up traces. US bodyguards of the former president of Columbia stay sharp all the time – the possibility of guerillas’ revenge for the death of commandant Reyes is very high.

Uribe even manages his estate Uberrimo by phone. He fears for his life because he knows that FARC has its people everywhere. On the same reason the former president spent in total not more than a week in his house located on the territory of the police complex in the north of Bogota. Though this complex is regarded to be unassailable, Uribe prefers not to tempt his fate. Enemies are everywhere. He cannot be 100% confident counting on [the] CIA. The fate of Panama’s president Noriega constantly reminds him on gringo’s double games. Noriega made a slip and was punished for it despite his previous merits and…he served [time] in prison in the US. Even [as] many regarded Noriega as the Empire’s favorite “son of a bitch” …

Edited by Zuo Shou

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Pentagon’s undercover operations in South America [Strategic Culture Foundation]

Posted in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, CIA, Colombia, Cuba, El Salvador, Evo Morales, FARC, FBI, Fidel Castro, Guatemala, Hillary Clinton, Honduras, Hugo Chavez, Media smear campaign, Mexico, Obama, Panama, Pentagon, Peru, State Department, US Government Cover-up, US imperialism, USA, Venezuela, Wikileaks on February 26, 2011 by Zuo Shou / 左手

by Nil Nikandrov

February 24, 2011

On February 10, the military aircraft of the Air Force of the United States, C-17 Globemaster III, registration 77187, landed at the Ezeiza international airport of the Argentine capital. From the Boeing’s bottomless carcasses [sic] the custom officers began to take out heavy boxes delivered from the base of the 7th Special Forces Group in Fort Bragg, North Carolina.  A routine check went on quietly and in a friendly atmosphere. Weapons, ammunitions, night vision equipment and many other items were intended for training of the military students of Federal Special Operations Group (GEOF) by US instructors.

Suddenly one of the Argentine officers exclaimed: “There are undeclared boxes here!”  The check revealed that about one third of the cargos were not mentioned in the invoices. The military and defense attaches, Colonels Edwin Passmore and Mark Alcott tried to reach an “amicable settlement”.  Let’s not make a fuss about nothing! We are partners, we should trust each other!

But the thing is that a similar incident with considerable surplus of military cargo on board of an American military aircraft took place in the Ezeiza airport in August 2010.Then US Ambassador in Argentina Vilma Martinez resolved the conflict.  She admitted that the claims of custom officers were grounded and ordered an immediate return of the aircraft to North Carolina with the all the cargo onboard.  She said she was ashamed of such a behavior of the US military men.  In Argentina her words were taken as a reflection of a hidden fight between the Pentagon and the State Department for the right to determine the US’ policy in South America.   

Now – a suspicious repetition. Argentina’s President Cristina Fernández ordered to act strictly in compliance with the national law and to do everything to have the “valise” checked.  Americans were given time to think over the only possible decision.

Next day after intensive consultations with Pentagon and the State Department the US embassy had to bow to pressure. Argentineans opened the undeclared container.  Inside they found devices for secret communication, encryption and audio interception, GPS, software and a wide range of psychotropic and narcotic substances.  According to Argentinean experts, all these devices and materials were intended for intelligence and diversionary work. The opening of the “valise”, its contents as well as boxes with smuggled weapons (“the property of 7th Special Forces Group”) – all this was shown on the national TV.  In order to prevent the escalation of the conflict, the Argentinean authorities allowed the US Boeing to leave the country with the “legal part of cargo” and the instructors.

The history of the 7th Special Forces Groupwas written in blood.  The group was formed 18 months after the victory of Fidel Castro on Cuba. The group was put in charge of the Central and South America.  The “service record” of this group includes training of “death squads” for putting down the revolts in Honduras and Salvador, fighting drug cartels in Columbia, Bolivia and Peru.  The group members took part in the “Just Cause” operation in Panama (overthrowing of president Noriega), invasion to Grenada (liquidation of the socialist government). The group’s regular training missions in Argentina and other countries of South America can be regarded as a preparation for similar operations in the “zone of responsibility” in future.

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